Associations between Social Support and Cognitive Performance among Persons with MS

Caroline M. Rafizadeh, Cheyenne Smith, Lauren B. Strober, John DeLuca, Michelle H. Chen 10/01/2023

Background: Social support is a protective factor against cognitive decline in the general population. However, the relationship between social support and cognitive functioning among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) is not well understood…

Use of high- and low-value care among US adults by education levels

Sungchul Park, Ann M Nguyen 08/06/2023

Background: Healthcare reform in the United States has focused on improving the value of health care, but there are some concerns about the inequitable delivery of value-based care…

Addressing racial inequality and its effects on vaccination rate: A trial comparing a pharmacist and peer educational program (MOTIVATE) in diverse older adults

Katherine M Prioli, Ayse Akincigil, Tarlan Namvar, Jocelyn Mitchell-Williams, Jason J Schafer, Renee C Cunningham, Lynn Fields-Harris, Megan McCoy, Ronald Vertsman, Ashley Guesnier, Laura T Pizzi 08/01/2023

BACKGROUND: The mortality, morbidity, health care utilization, and cost attributable to vaccine-preventable diseases are substantial for those aged 50 years and older. Although vaccination is the most cost-effective strategy to prevent common infectious diseases in older adults, vaccination rates remain below US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention benchmarks, especially among racial minorities. Historical mistrust, structural racism within the US medical system, and misinformation contributed to lower immunization rates among minorities, especially Black Americans. To address the critical need to increase knowledge and trust in vaccination, 2 community-based educational interventions were tested: a pharmacist-led didactic session (PHARM) and a peer-led educational workshop (PEER). 

Genomic approaches to identify and investigate genes associated with atrial fibrillation and heart failure susceptibility

Kush Ketan Patel, Cynthia Venkatesan, Habiba Abdelhalim, Saman Zeeshan, Yuichiro Arima, Suvi Linna-Kuosmanen, Zeeshan Ahmed 06/03/2023

Atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) contribute to about 45% of all cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths in the USA and around the globe. Due to the complex nature, progression, inherent genetic makeup, and heterogeneity of CVDs, personalized treatments are believed to be critical. To improve the deciphering of CVD mechanisms, we need to deeply investigate well-known and identify novel genes that are responsible for CVD development. With the advancements in sequencing technologies, genomic data have been generated at an unprecedented pace to foster translational research. Correct application of bioinformatics using genomic data holds the potential to reveal the genetic underpinnings of various health conditions…

Knowledge Gaps in End-Of-Life Family Caregiving for Persons Living With Dementia: A Study of Hospice Clinician Perspectives

Meghan McDarby, David Russell, Lori King, Elissa Kozlov, and Elizabeth A. Luth 05/12/2023

Introduction: More than 35% of hospice care recipients 65 and older have a dementia diagnosis. Yet family care partners of persons living with dementia report feeling unprepared to address their hospice recipient’s changing needs nearing end of life. Hospice clinicians may have unique insight into the knowledge needs of family care partners and strategies for end-of-life dementia caregiving.

Air Pollution and Cardiovascular and Thromboembolic Events in Older Adults With High-Risk Conditions

Rachel C Nethery, Kevin Josey, Poonam Gandhi, Jung Hyun Kim, Aayush Visaria, Benjamin Bates, Joel Schwartz, David Robinson, Soko Setoguchi 04/17/2023

Abstract: Little epidemiologic research has focused on pollution-related risks in medically vulnerable or marginalized groups. Using a nationwide 50% random sample of 2008–2016 Medicare Part D–eligible fee-for-service participants in the United States, we identified a cohort with high-risk conditions for cardiovascular and thromboembolic events (CTEs) and linked individuals with seasonal average zip-code–level concentrations of fine particulate matter (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5)).

Naloxone expansion is not associated with increases in adolescent heroin use and injection drug use: Evidence from 44 US states

Emilie Bruzelius, Magdalena Cerdá, Corey S. Davis, Victoria Jent, Katherine Wheeler-Martin, Christine M. Mauro, Stephen Crystal, Katherine M. Keyes, Hillary Samples, Deborah S. Hasin, Silvia S. Martins 04/01/2023

Naloxone distribution is central to ongoing efforts to address the opioid overdose crisis. Some critics contend that naloxone expansion may inadvertently promote high-risk substance use behaviors among adolescents, but this question has not been directly investigated…

Childhood asthma diagnoses declined during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States

Daniel B. Horton, Amanda L. Neikirk, Yiling Yang, Cecilia Huang, Reynold A. Panettieri Jr, Stephen Crystal, Brian L. Strom & Lauren E. Parlett 03/10/2023

Background: Prior studies have documented declines in pediatric asthma exacerbations and asthma-related health care utilization during the COVID-19 pandemic, but less is known about the incidence of asthma during the pandemic…

Psychological Determinants of Physician Variation in End-of-Life Treatment Intensity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Synthesis

Login S. George PhD, Ronald M. Epstein MD, Ayse Akincigil PhD, Biren Saraiya MD, Kelly M. Trevino PhD, Alexandra Kuziemski, Lavanya Pushparaj, Elizabeth Policano, Holly G. Prigerson PhD, Kendra Godwin MS & Paul Duberstein PhD 02/02/2023

Background: Physicians treating similar patients in similar care-delivery contexts vary in the intensity of life-extending care provided to their patients at the end-of-life. Physician psychological propensities are an important potential determinant of this variability, but the pertinent literature has yet to be synthesized…

How COVID-19 Emergency Practitioner Licensure Impacted Access to Care: Perceptions of Local and National Stakeholders

Ann M. Nguyen, PhD, MPH; Jennifer J. Farnham, MS; Jeanne M. Ferrante, MD, MPH 02/01/2023

ABSTRACT: The COVID-19 public health emergency required US states to respond rapidly on regulatory issues, including the process for licensing healthcare practitioners. At least 45 states enacted some form of a licensure waiver, enabling practitioners to temporarily work across state lines. We conducted 22 interviews with national and local (New Jersey) licensure stakeholders in September and October 2021 to capture perceptions of how emergency licensure impacted access to care…

Revising ruling discourses: The griefwork evidence-to-practice gap and the mental health workforce

Judith L. M. McCoyd, Erica Goldblatt Hyatt, Kerry Hennessy & Ayse Akincigil 01/25/2023

Elisabeth Kübler-Ross’ pioneering work focused on dying, yet some clinicians persist in prescribing it as a path through grief. We surveyed 964 mental health clinicians who completed a five-section mixed methods survey: two sections assessed knowledge with multiple choice questions and a case study to assess clinicians’ knowledge-base and approach to grief/loss in practice. Analysis of four items related to Kübler-Ross’ model and 66/962 case studies indicates ongoing use of “stages” and Kübler-Ross’ model. Only 330 (34.2%) of the clinicians were deemed knowledgeable; 462 (47.9%) were questionable; and 172 (17.9%) were misinformed, continuing to use Kübler-Ross’ stage theory for grief…