Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in Parkinson’s disease with freezing of gait: an exploratory analysis

J. M. Hatcher-Martin, J. L. McKay, A. F. Pybus, B. Sommerfeld, J. C. Howell, F. C. Goldstein, L. Wood, W. T. Hu, S. A. Factor

Publication Date: 11/29/2021

Abstract: We explore the association between three Alzheimer’s disease-related and ten inflammation-related CSF markers and freezing of gait (FOG) in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The study population includes PD patients with FOG (PD-FOG, N = 12), without FOG (PD-NoFOG, N = 19), and healthy controls (HC, N = 12). Age and PD duration are not significantly different between groups. After adjusting for covariates and multiple comparisons, the anti-inflammatory marker, fractalkine, is significantly decreased in the PD groups compared to HC (P = 0.002), and further decreased in PD-FOG compared to PD-NoFOG (P = 0.007). The Alzheimer’s disease-related protein, Aβ42, is increased in PD-FOG compared to PD-NoFOG and HC (P = 0.001). Group differences obtained in individual biomarker analyses are confirmed with multivariate discriminant partial least squares regression (P < 0.001). High levels of Aβ42 in PD-FOG patients supports an increase over time from early to advanced state. Low levels of fractalkine might suggest anti-inflammatory effect. These findings warrant replication.