Temporal trends in mortality and loss to follow-up among children enrolled in côte d’ivoire’s national antiretroviral therapy program

Andrew F. Auld, Moise Z. Tuho, Kunomboa A. Ekra, Ray W. Shiraishi, Fayama Mohamed, Joseph S. Kouakou, Virginie Ettiègne-Traoré, Jennifer Sabatier, Joseph Essombo, Emilia D. Rivadeneira, Georgette Adjorlolo-Johnson, Richard Marlink, Tedd V. Ellerbrock

Publication Date: 01/01/2014

Background: During 2004-2008, >2000 children (<15 years old) initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Côte d'Ivoire. Nationally representative outcomes, temporal trends in outcomes during 2004-2008 and site-level outcome determinants have not been investigated. Methods: Incidence rates of death, loss to follow-up (LTFU) and attrition (death or LTFU) were evaluated in a nationally representative, retrospective cohort study among 2,110 children, who initiated ART at 29 facilities in Côte d'Ivoire during 2004-2008. Results: At ART initiation, 54% were male, 1% was HIV-2-infected and median age was 5.1 years. Median CD4% was 11%, and 61% had weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) ≤-2. Vaccination completion was documented for 9% of children. Eleven of 29 facilities had an integrated nutrition program. Over 4585 person-years of ART, 237 children died and 427 became LTFU. Twelve-month attrition was 22% overall, but increased from 4% to 34% during 2004-2008, due to increases in 12-month mortality (from 3-11%) and 12-month LTFU (from 2% to 23%). In adjusted analysis, compared with enrollees in 2004, enrollees in 2008 had nearly 4-fold higher mortality and 8-fold higher LTFU. World Health Organization stage III/IV, CD4% <10%, WAZ ≤2 and hemoglobin <8 g/dL, were predictive of mortality. Incomplete vaccination was predictive of mortality and LTFU. Facilities with nutrition programs had lower LTFU and mortality rates. Clinics reporting nurse dissatisfaction with working conditions had higher LTFU rates. Conclusion: Investigation of causes of increasing mortality and LTFU is needed. Ensuring earlier ART initiation, vaccination completion, scale-up of site-level nutrition programs and nurse work-environment satisfaction, could improve pediatric ART program outcomes. Publisher: